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Secondary Sources:

  • Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New Press, 2010.
  • Blackmon, Douglas A. Slavery by Another Name: The Re-enslavement of Black People in America from the Civil War to World War II. New York: Doubleday, 2008.
  • Childs, Dennis. Slaves of the State: Black Incarceration from the Chain Gang to the Penitentiary. University of Minnesota Press, 2015.
  • Davis, Angela Y. Are Prisons Obsolete? New York: Seven Stories Press, 2003.
  • Ducksworth, John. 2010. The Prisoner Reentry Industry. Dialectical Anthropology 34 (4). Springer: 557–61. 
  • Hymowitz, Kay. “The Breakdown of the Black Family.” The Atlantic. October 4, 2015.
  • LeFlouria, Talitha L. Chained in Silence: Black Women and Convict Labor in the New South. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2015.
  • Muhammad, Khalil Gibran. The Condemnation of Blackness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
  • Perkinson, Robert. Texas Tough: The Rise of America’s Prison Empire. New York: Picador/Henry Holt &, 2010.
  • Thompson, Heather Ann. Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline, and Transformation in Postwar American History. The Journal of American History (2010), 97 (3): 703-734.
  • Western B, Wildeman C. The Black Family and Mass Incarceration. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences. 2009;(621):221-242.